Exploring Papakāinga: A Kaupapa Māori quantitative methodology

Ella Henry; Charles Crothers

Abstract – Tuhinga Whakarāpopoto

This paper offers a strategy for gathering and analysing large-scale data. The aim is to understand how Māori might better fulfil aspirations for the designing, financing, and building of housing, as well as perceptions of housing and papakāinga, and the contribution this has to Māori wellbeing.

The researchers say a study of this kind will contribute new knowledge and better understanding of Māori aspirations, in this case around housing, but that there is potential for such a methodology to be applied to a range of issues, where the data collected will contribute to improved wellbeing for Māori.

Articles associated with this research – Karere Tūhono

Podcast Series: Papakāinga People

13 August 2019: This podcast focuses on a papakāinga (settlement of homes and associated environment) in Ahipara where the whānau of Rueben Taipari (Ngāpuhi, Te Rarawa, Ngāti Kahu, Ngāi Tuhoe) are building a papakāinga of muka-reinforced, cement-stabilised rammed earth homes – or whare uku – on Rueben’s ancestral whānau whenua. Dr Rebecca Kiddle talks to Rueben, his wife, Heeni Hoterene (Ngāti Hine, Ngāti Raukawa ki te Tonga, Ngāi Tahu) and their tamariki to understand the everyday realities of life on the papakāinga. Rebecca also talks to Dr Helen Potter, a researcher working alongside the whānau to tell their story in an upcoming book on Māori Housing being produced by the Kāinga Tahi, Kāinga Rua research programme. >> Read More.

Podcast Series: Papakāinga in the 21st Century – Going up

14 August 2019: Building papakāinga in urban settings where land is expensive and in short supply, is the focus of today’s papakāinga. Ngāti Whātua Ōrākei have been grappling with exactly these questions on their Orākei whenua. Dr Rebecca Kiddle explores with Anahera Rawiri from Ngāti Whātua Ōrākei, alongside researchers Rau Hoskins and Irene Kereama-Royal, the notion of a ‘vertical papakāinga’. They have been working to understand whether this apartment housing typology fits well with the ways that Ngāti Whātua Ōrākei have historical lived and how they want to live in the future. This innovative exploration builds on their existing papakāinga development that draws on medium density housing typologies to use land efficiently and house as many of their whanau as possible. >> Read More.

Other reports associated with this research

Berghan, J. (2020). Ecology of community: Exploring principles of socially-based tenure in urban papakāinga and cohousing communities (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/10529

Berghan, J. (2021). Kaupapakāinga: The potential for Māori cohousing. Report for Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities: Affordable Housing for Generations. September 2021, 37 pgs. Wellington: BBHTC.

Berghan, J., Goodwin, D. & Carter, L. (2018). Remaking community: Building principles of communal tenure into contemporary housing developments. In Remaking Cities: Conference Proceedings, pp. 45-51. Melbourne: RMIT university.

Hoskins, R., Lee-Morgan, J., Knox, W., Dennis, H., Henry, L., Nathan, L., Smiler R. & Ratana, M. (2019). Tūranga ki te marae, e tau ana – Reimagining marae-based kāinga in Tāmaki Makaurau. A resource to support urban marae-based housing developments, funded by Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities: Kāinga Tahi, Kāinga Rua, 80 pgs. Auckland: Ngā Wai a te Tūi Press

Keywords – Kupu Hāngai

Māori, housing, wellbeing, making communities, urban wellbeing, papakāinga, cohousing

Fields of Research – Āpure Rangahau

Māori; Papakāinga; Urban Development; Urban Planning


Date – Te Wā Whakarewa



Type – Te Auaha


Citation – Kupu Hautoa

Henry, E. & Crothers, C. (2019). Exploring Papakāinga: A Kaupapa Māori quantitative methodology. Report for Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities: Kāinga Tahi, Kāinga Rua, project 8 – Papakainga Whenu 3, May 2019. Wellington: BBHTC