Examining the Factors affecting Household Energy Expenditure

Lynn Riggs
Principal Advisor
New Zealand Productivity Commission
Email: Lynn.Riggs@productivity.govt.nz

Nigel Isaacs
Senior Lecturer
Wellington School of Architecture, Victoria University of Wellington
Email: nigel.isaacs@vuw.ac.nz

Vicki White
Senior Research Scientist
Email: Vicki.White@branz.co.nz

Abstract – Tuhinga Whakarāpopoto

This study examines household-level energy expenditure data from the Household Economic Survey to determine which factors, statistically and economically, affect these expenditures. A comparison of expenditure in colder months relative to other months was utilised to gather a better understanding of the factors driving heating behaviour among NZ households.

Other reports associated with this research

White, V., Ferguson, A., Goodyear, R. & Saville-Smith, K. (2021). The condition of owned and rented housing in Aotearoa New Zealand. New Zealand Population Review, 47, 108–144. Special Edition: Housing at the heart of place, people and population.

Keywords – Kupu Hāngai

Housing, rental housing, energy, residential energy expenditure, heating behaviour

Fields of Research – Āpure Rangahau

Economics, Housing, Urban and Regional Planning


Date – Te Wā Whakarewa



Type – Te Auaha


Citation – Kupu Hautoa

Riggs, L., Isaacs, N., and V. White, (2023) Examining the Factors affecting Household Energy Expenditure, Report for Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities, Affordable Housing for Generations – Component D, March 2023, Wellington: BBHTC.